456-0119/01 – Principles of Logical Analysis of Language (PLAJ)

Gurantor departmentDepartment of Computer ScienceCredits4
Subject guarantorprof. RNDr. Marie Duží, CSc.Subject version guarantorprof. RNDr. Marie Duží, CSc.
Study levelundergraduate or graduateRequirementOptional
Year3Semesterwinter
Study languageCzech
Year of introduction2002/2003Year of cancellation2009/2010
Intended for the facultiesFEIIntended for study typesFollow-up Master
Instruction secured by
LoginNameTuitorTeacher giving lectures
DUZ48 prof. RNDr. Marie Duží, CSc.
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Full-time Credit and Examination 2+2
Combined Credit and Examination 10+0

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

To obtain knowledge of a rather young discipline that belongs to the foundations of, e.g., Artificial Intelligence. A precise specification of the meaning of a natural language expression consists in finding the logical construction - structure represented by the expression. We aim at a correct, accurate analysis in order to perform just the adequate inferences, i.e. to deduce just all the logical consequences that follow from a given statement, to prevent paradoxical arguments.

Teaching methods

Lectures
Seminars
Individual consultations
Tutorials

Summary

A student is informed on basic problems, which are dealt with in the discipline Logical Analysis of (natural) Language. The shortcomings of traditional solutions within a predicate logic are examined. Using Transparent Intensional Logic a student will learn to solve these problems in such a way that undesirable paradoxical arguments are avoided. Correct, fine-grained logical analysis, i.e. the respective logical construction, is a necessary condition of performing adequate inferences, and it can serve as a basis for knowledge representaiotn in knowledge based systems. An (automated) translation into another language is made feasible as well.

Compulsory literature:

Tichý, P.: The Foundations of Frege's Logic. De Gruyter 1988. Duží, M., Materna P.: Constructions. http://www.phil.muni.cz/fil/logika/til/ Materna P.: Concepts and Objects. Acta Philosophica Fennica, Vol. 63, Helsinki 1998. Materna, P., Štěpán J.: Filosofická logika: Nová cesta? Olomouc 2000. Organon F. Filosofický časopis Bratislava. The Logica Yearbooks. FILOSOFIA Praha.

Recommended literature:

Duží, M., Materna P.: Constructions. http://www.phil.muni.cz/fil/logika/til/ Duží, M., Jespersen, B., Materna P.: Procedural Semantics for Hyperintensional Logic. Foundations and Applications of TIL. Springer (2010).

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester

Verification of study: Written test, max. 30 grades Conditions for credit: Obtaining at least 15 grades

E-learning

Další požadavky na studenta

Prerequisities

Subject has no prerequisities.

Co-requisities

Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

Lectures: Introduction. What is the meaning of a natural language expression? Logical entailment (consequence relation) as a subject matter of logic. Paradoxical arguments - an inadequate analysis of premises. Constraints of the 1st-order predicate logic: An insufficient degree of expressiveness, extensionality. Frege's problem, the paradox of analysis. Frege-Church schema: What do we speak about and the way we speak about it. Denotational semantics vs. procedural semantics. Transparent intensional logic (TIL): Characteristic features, philosophy. The simple theory of types, epistemic base, possible worlds, intensions vs. extensions. The key notion of TIL - construction. The problem of (non)existence, modalities, tenses. Analysis of interrogative sentences, queries. The ramified theory of types, meaning conceived as a concept - closed construction. Solutions of the paradox of analysis and omniscience. Homonymous, synonymous and equivalent expressions. Analysis of expressions with empty concepts as constituents. Using and mentioning concepts. Partial functions, presuppositions, de re vs. de dicto suppositions. Propositional and notional attitudes. Problems connected with using partial functions. Exercises: Basic notions of predicate logic (PL) Correct arguments that are not justifiable using PL Type analysis of simple mathematical expressions Intensions vs. extensions Analysis of mathematical expressions - finding the TIL construction Analysis of (non)existence Modalities (the analysis of possibility and necessity) Analysis of interrogative sentences Ramified theory of types, the theory of concept Expressions involving empty concepts, using and mentioning Presupposition, supposition de dicto / de re Propositional and notional attitudes Problems connected with using partial functions

Conditions for subject completion

Combined form (validity from: 1960/1961 Summer semester, validity until: 2008/2009 Winter semester)
Task nameType of taskMax. number of points
(act. for subtasks)
Min. number of points
Exercises evaluation and Examination Credit and Examination 100 (145) 51
        Examination Examination 100  0
        Exercises evaluation Credit 45  0
Mandatory attendence parzicipation:

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