516-0861/02 – Acoustics and Optics (AaO)

Gurantor departmentInstitute of PhysicsCredits5
Subject guarantordoc. RNDr. Petr Hlubina, CSc.Subject version guarantordoc. RNDr. Petr Hlubina, CSc.
Study levelundergraduate or graduate
Study languageCzech
Year of introduction2007/2008Year of cancellation2015/2016
Intended for the facultiesFEI, HGFIntended for study typesBachelor
Instruction secured by
LoginNameTuitorTeacher giving lectures
HLU03 doc. RNDr. Petr Hlubina, CSc.
ZIV01 doc. Ing. Ondřej Životský, Ph.D.
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Full-time Credit and Examination 2+2

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

Collect the basic physical principles and laws of acoustics and optics Describe, clarify and interpret the particular natural phenomena in these fields of physics Apply the simple mathematical methods for describing the corresponding physical phenomena Illustrate obtained knowledge in the frame of the easy applications

Teaching methods

Lectures
Tutorials

Summary

Předmět navazuje na předmět Teorie elektromagnetického pole a rozvíjí jej v oblasti šíření elektromagnetických vln celého vlnového rozsahu v homogenním dielektriku. Po zákonech šíření elektromagnetických vln probírá geometrickou optiku a fotometrii. Dále vysvětluje vznik záření a spekter na základě kvantové teorie. Z téhož pohledu probírá záření černého tělesa a fotoefekt. V dalších kapitolách se zabývá vlnovými vlastnostmi světla, interferencí a ohybem světla na různých objektech. Kapitola je uzavřena výkladem principu holografie. Samostatné kapitoly jsou věnovány polarizaci světla, Fourierově optice a základům teorie koherence. V druhém oddílu předmětu jsou položeny základy akustiky jako mechanického vlnění. Nejdříve jsou definovány základní akustické veličiny. Postupně pak jsou probírány jevy uplatňující se v diagnostice jako rychlost šíření vln látkou, jejich odraz a lom, Dopplerův jev. Následuje výklad vlastností zvuku a základy jeho šíření v exteriéru a interiéru.

Compulsory literature:

Kopečný, J.: Physics IIb, VŠB-TUO, Ostrava 2000; Krupka, F., Kalivoda, L.: Physics, SNTL, Praha 1989; Štrba, A.: Optics, Alfa, Bratislava 1979.

Recommended literature:

Hecht, E., Zajac,A.: Optics, Addiso-Wesley Pub. Com., London 1984; Vrbová, M.a kol.: Lasers and modern optics, Prometheus, Praha 1994; Obraz, J.: Ultrasonic testing of materials, SNTL, Praha 1989;

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester

E-learning

Další požadavky na studenta

Systematic preparation for lectures.

Prerequisities

Subject has no prerequisities.

Co-requisities

Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES - Classification of waves: transverse and longitudinal waves, progressive and standing waves. - Origin and basic properties of electromagnetic waves -- Origin of electromagnetic waves: general Maxwell's equations, Maxwell's equations for isotropic dielectric, wave equation and its solutions for a planar wavefront, the speed of light. Types of waves, the complex representation. -- The spectrum of electromagnetic waves: the distribution of the spectrum according to wavelength (frequency) and adequate sources. -- Energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves: radiant energy, radiant energy density, radiation intensity, the average density radiant energy, the average intensity of radiation, Poynting vector. -- Polarization: partial and complete polarization, linearly, circularly and elliptically polarized waves. - Geometric Optics - Basic conventions: geometric approximation, the beam wavefront, sign convention. - Refractive index: definition, dependence on wavelength and temperature, the standard indices of refraction, the classification of optical glasses, normal and anomalous dispersion. Complex refractive index. -- Laws of reflection and refraction: the principle of Huygens, Fermat's principle, impact angles, reflection and refraction, reflection law, Snell's law of refraction, total reflection. Plane-parallel plate, prism, wedge. Reflection at the quarry, a reflection on metals. -- Fundamentals of optical imaging: basic concepts - optical system, real and virtual image, collinear display, optical axis, subject and image values, focus and focal plane, the main points and principal planes, transverse magnification, longitudinal and angle magnification. Views quarry on the spherical surface - the center of curvature, peak radius of curvature. Paraxial space, rendering equation, focal distance, converging and diffusing surface, the transverse magnification. Views reflection on the spherical surface - convex and concave mirror, the imaging equation mirrors, focal length, transverse magnification. Geometric design image. Views thick and thin lenses - a progressive view thick lens (paraxial space). Views thin lens imaging equation thin lens focal length, converging and diffusing lens, refractive power, transverse magnification. Geometric design image. Display a set of lenses. Restrictions of ray beams. Defects of display. -- Basic optical devices: the human eye - the eye piece, close and distant point, the conventional visual distance, long-sighted and short-sighted eye, eye defects and their correction, resolution. Magnifier - a principle view, magnification. Microscope - principle views, lens and eyepiece, the optical range, magnification, empty magnification. Binoculars - the principle of view, lens and eyepiece, Galilei and Kepler type of mirror telescope, magnification. Photographic lens - aperture, depth of field, aperture. - Photometry -- Radiant and photometric quantities: radiant and luminous energy, radiant and luminous flux, luminous and spectral luminous efficacy of radiation, radiance and luminosity, radiance and brightness, exposure and lighting, Lambert law, light exposure. - Wave properties of light -- Interference of light: the principle of superposing waves, spatial and temporal coherence, coherence length. The principle of a rotating vector, the conditions maxima and minima, the reflection of waves, coherent length. Young's experiment, the interference on a thin layer wedge, Newton glass, Multibeam interference. Interferometers. -- Diffraction of light: Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. Fraunhofer diffraction at the slit, circular and square aperture, the diffraction on grating. Diffraction and resolution of optical instruments. -- Holography: The object wave and information, recording of the hologram, reconstruction of the hologram, real and virtual image. - Polarization of light: linearly, circularly and elliptically polarized light, the mathematical description of the Fresnel formulas. Methods of polarized light and phase shift. Partially polarized light. Optical activity. Interference of polarized light. ACOUSTICS - Mechanical waves: the emergence of mechanical waves, wave equation and its solution, transverse and longitudinal waves, progressive and standing waves. - Sound waves -- Basic concepts: dividing waves, the equation for displacement, velocity, acoustic velocity, wavefront, sound pressure, sound wave resistance, RMS intensity sound waves, types of sound waves. -- The speed of wave propagation substance: longitudinal, transverse and surface waves in solid, liquid and gas. Attenuation of waves. -- Reflection and refraction of waves: the coefficient of reflection and transmission factor. -- Doppler effect: moving source, observer movement, the movement of both. -- Properties of sound: musical sounds and noises. Basic and higher harmonic tone. Resonators, sound color. -- Subjective power of sound: threshold. Weber - Fechner law. The level of intensity and volume level.

Conditions for subject completion

Conditions for completion are defined only for particular subject version and form of study

Occurrence in study plans

Academic yearProgrammeField of studySpec.FormStudy language Tut. centreYearWSType of duty
2014/2015 (B2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3911R001) Applied Physics of Materials P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2013/2014 (B2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3911R001) Applied Physics of Materials P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2012/2013 (B2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3911R001) Applied Physics of Materials P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2011/2012 (B2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3911R001) Applied Physics of Materials P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2010/2011 (B2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3911R001) Applied Physics of Materials P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2009/2010 (B2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3911R001) Applied Physics of Materials P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2008/2009 (B2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3911R001) Applied Physics of Materials P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2007/2008 (B2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3911R001) Applied Physics of Materials P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan

Occurrence in special blocks

Block nameAcademic yearForm of studyStudy language YearWSType of blockBlock owner