541-0040/01 – Applied Hydrogeochemistry (AHGF)

Gurantor departmentDepartment of Geological EngineeringCredits5
Subject guarantordoc. Mgr. Monika Ličbinská, Ph.D.Subject version guarantordoc. Mgr. Monika Ličbinská, Ph.D.
Study levelundergraduate or graduateRequirementChoice-compulsory
Year1Semestersummer
Study languageCzech
Year of introduction2006/2007Year of cancellation2016/2017
Intended for the facultiesHGFIntended for study typesFollow-up Master
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Full-time Credit and Examination 2+2

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

Acquire of knowledges on the form of the occurence of elements in waters with utilization of hydrogeochemical models. Application of results from models on real systems. Evaluation of ecotoxicity of water ecosystems on the basis of knowledges of occurence of elementes and comparison with actual values.

Teaching methods

Lectures
Tutorials

Summary

Předmět je zaměřen na zvládnutí základních pojmů pro hydrogeochemické modelování povrchových i podzemních vod. Vychází ze znalostí získaných v předmětu hydrochemie. Přírodní voda jako roztok a jejich kvalitativní vlastnosti. Chemické složení, původ makrosložek a mikrosložek v přírodních tekutinách. Aktivita roztoku, iontová síla roztoku, aktivní koeficienty. Chemické rovnováhy ve vodách. Kriteria spontánnosti reakcí a indexy chemické nerovnováhy. Aktivity, aktivitní koeficienty, iontová síla, rovnovážné konstanty. Numerické řešení chemických rovnáh. Digramy rozpustnosti. Komplexotvorné rovnováhy.Srážeci a rozpouštěcí rovnováhy. Agresivita přírodních vod. Organické látky a organismy v přírodních vodách. Radioaktivní látky a izotopy v podzemních vodách. Hydrogeochemické klasifikační systémy. Způsoby zpracování hydrogeochemických dat. Principy základních hydrochemických modelů PHREEQE a AquaChem a jejich využívání v oblasti hydrogeochemie. Příklady aplikací.

Compulsory literature:

Apelo C.A.J., Postma D. (1994): Geochemistry groundwater and pollution, Balkema Rotterdam (539 p.).

Recommended literature:

Analytické modely. www.epa.gov./ada www.scisoftware.com/products/phreeqe

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester

E-learning

Další požadavky na studenta

The study of recommended literature.

Prerequisities

Subject has no prerequisities.

Co-requisities

Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

Hydrochemistry is important for the development of a number of related sciences, including petrology, mineralogy, soil science, hydrogeology, and hydrobiology. Knowledge of the chemical composition of water (which determines its quality) is necessary for such areas of practical activity as water supply, irrigation, and fish culture. Hydrochemical data are important in evaluating the corrosion of construction materials (concrete and metal), in analyzing mineral waters, in mineral prospecting (petroleum, ore deposits, and radioactive substances), and the like. The study of the chemical composition of water becomes particularly important when combatting the pollution of water basins by waste waters. Three subdivisions of hydrochemistry can be distinguished in its present stage of development. (1) The first subdivision deals with the formation of the chemical composition of natural waters. It includes the study of water as a solvent for the complex of minerals of the earth’s crust and the study of the chemical processes that occur in water as it interacts with rocks, soils, organisms, and the atmosphere. Investigations are also carried out on the solubility of substances found in nature, their state in solution and their stability, as well as on the sorption, exchange, and oxidation-reduction processes. In this subdivision, closely related to geochemistry, we must include the general questions of the cycle of substances and the migration of elements in the hydrosphere. (2) The second subdivision deals with the chemical composition and hydrochemical cycle of certain forms of natural water and the dependence of their changes on the physicogeographical conditions of the surrounding environment. This broad subdivision borders closely on hydrology, and it is divided into the chemistry of rivers and lakes, chemistry of the sea, and the chemistry of underground water and atmospheric water. The chemistry of surface waters studies the chemical composition of water in rivers, lakes, and artificial reservoirs, changes in the composition with land or water area and with depth, seasonal diurnal variations, and the conditions of the determination of its composition in its dependence on the surrounding environment. It is of great importance to predict the chemical composition of water reservoirs built in arid regions and to combat pollution in reservoirs. Investigations of salt lakes, rich in minerals, is very important for the chemical industry. The chemistry of the sea is closely related to oceanography. In addition to the study of the dependence salinity, biogenic substances, and dissolved gases on hydrodynamic, hydrometeorological, and hydrobiological factors, it also studies the form and content of trace elements, the origin of organic substances, the processes of the metamorphization of organic substances, and the processes of the interaction of seawater with river and sea bottom sediments. The chemistry of underground waters includes the study of the chemical composition of ground, stratal, artesian, and mineral waters and of the waters from petroleum deposits. Particularly stressed are the formation of the composition of waters and the processes of the interaction of water with the surrounding rocks, which take place at high pressures and often at elevated temperatures with retarded water exchange and characteristic microbiological conditions. For a long time, the study of mineral waters, quite varied in composition and origin, has been of great importance. (3) The third subdivision consists of the methods used in hydrochemical investigations. This subdivision is a special branch of analytical chemistry, as applied to the characteristics of the analysis of natural waters. At present, fiydro-chemistry makes extensive use of spectroscopy, chromatography, polarography, tagged atoms, and other physico-chemical methods. A large subdivision of analysis is the determination of the components of polluted water.

Conditions for subject completion

Full-time form (validity from: 2012/2013 Winter semester, validity until: 2016/2017 Summer semester)
Task nameType of taskMax. number of points
(act. for subtasks)
Min. number of points
Exercises evaluation and Examination Credit and Examination 100 (100) 51
        Exercises evaluation Credit 33  17
        Examination Examination 67  18
Mandatory attendence parzicipation:

Show history

Occurrence in study plans

Academic yearProgrammeField of studySpec.FormStudy language Tut. centreYearWSType of duty
2015/2016 (N2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3901T037) Water - strategic resource P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan
2014/2015 (N2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3901T037) Water - strategic resource P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan
2013/2014 (N2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3901T037) Water - strategic resource P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan
2012/2013 (N2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3901T037) Water - strategic resource P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan
2011/2012 (N2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3901T037) Water - strategic resource P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan
2010/2011 (N2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3901T037) Water - strategic resource P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan
2009/2010 (N2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3901T037) Water - strategic resource P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan
2008/2009 (N2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3901T037) Water - strategic resource P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan
2007/2008 (N2102) Mineral Raw Materials (3901T037) Water - strategic resource P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan

Occurrence in special blocks

Block nameAcademic yearForm of studyStudy language YearWSType of blockBlock owner