616-0802/01 – Waste Treatment (NsO)

Gurantor departmentDepartment of Environmental Protection in IndustryCredits6
Subject guarantordoc. Ing. Petr Jančík, Ph.D.Subject version guarantorIng. Jiří Fiedor, Ph.D.
Study levelundergraduate or graduateRequirementChoice-compulsory
Year2Semesterwinter
Study languageCzech
Year of introduction2004/2005Year of cancellation
Intended for the facultiesHGF, FAST, FMTIntended for study typesFollow-up Master
Instruction secured by
LoginNameTuitorTeacher giving lectures
FIE38 Ing. Jiří Fiedor, Ph.D.
OBR20 prof. Ing. Karel Obroučka, CSc.
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Full-time Credit and Examination 3+3
Combined Credit and Examination 18+0

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

- student will know to define the basic reqirements comming form the valid legislative in the given area - student will know the basic obligations of waste producers - student will know the sources of wastes from the production and consumption area - student will know analyse the waste samples for the basic physical and thermochemical properties - student will know the basic technologies for the waste processing

Teaching methods

Lectures
Seminars
Tutorials
Experimental work in labs

Summary

The subject is focused on the problems of waste management area, the sources and kinds of wastes, its selection, methods of disposal and the legislative in this area.

Compulsory literature:

/1/ Woodard F.: Industrial Waste Treatment Handbook. BH Boston 2001. /2/ Rathje W., Murphy C.: Rubish – The Archaeology of Garbage, Edited by Harper Perennial, New York, 1993

Recommended literature:

/1/ Woodard F.: Industrial Waste Treatment Handbook. BH Boston 2001. /2/ Rathje W., Murphy C.: Rubish – The Archaeology of Garbage, Edited by Harper Perennial, New York, 1993

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester

control test

E-learning

Fiedor, J. Waste Management I, e-learning study support, 2010

Další požadavky na studenta

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Prerequisities

Subject codeAbbreviationTitleRequirement
616-0402 NsO Waste Treatment Recommended

Co-requisities

Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

1st Week Introduction to Waste Management. Causes of waste. Types and categories of waste. Historical development of waste management. Hazardous waste characteristics. Evaluation of the hazards of waste. Sources and incidence of waste. Waste prevention. Information systems operations. Priorities for waste management. Use of waste. Recycling and recovery of waste. Recycling technology. The cost of disposal of waste and activities. Material recovery. Recycling and recovery. System approach to recycling. Flow of matter and energy. Recycling technology. Effectiveness of recycling. Regeneration of hazardous chemical waste. Regeneration of waste oils. Energy recovery. Methods and principles. Adjustment and stabilization operations. New directions in waste management. Low waste and waste technologies. The basic concept of waste minimization. New guidelines for waste management. Waste and inevitable consequence of production and consumption processes. Options to reduce waste. Improving the efficiency of production and consumption processes. Substitution of the hazardous materials. Examples of advanced clean technologies. Net technology, based on changes in the production process and substitution of materials. Expected development of waste management in coming years 2nd Week Municipal waste. Collection of municipal wastes. Sorting and separate collection of municipal wastes. Hazardous substances in municipal wastes. The use of municipal wastes. Disposal of municipal solid waste. Problems of municipal landfill waste. Mechanical sorting of household waste. Material and energy recovery of municipal wastes. Packaging materials in municipal wastes. Representation of individual components of household waste. Influence of the packaging on the environment. 3rd Week Waste from industry. Wastes from inorganic chemical industries. Recycling of used catalysts, and sludge. Wastes containing fluoride. Cyanides. Wastes from organic chemical production. Polymer waste (ethylene, phenol, propylene, formaldehyde). Metal-bearing wastes. Galvanic Spa. Iron oxides. Chelatizační agents. Recycling of metal waste containing aluminum, copper, lead, cadmium. Wastes from the production and processing of metals. Processing of galvanic sludge. Waste from glass plants. Fragments containing the metal impurities (Pb, Se, Sb, Cd), slag and lining with a high content of heavy metals. Grinding residue waste is abrasive. Waste glass etching. 4th Week Sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants. Raw sludge and stabilized sludge. The composition of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (pathogens, heavy metals). Thickening, stabilization, dewatering, disinfection. Anaerobic stabilization, biogas production. Combustion and pyrolysis of sludge from wastewater treatment plants. Wastes from the food industry. Types of waste generated during food processing and compen. Animal fats and dairy products (containing PCBs). Waste water with high chloride content, NO3-, NO2-, antibiotics. Use of waste as feed, food waste, energy use, biotransformation compost and biogas. 5th Week Wastes from industries. Cement powder, salt kalírenské. Chlorinated hydrocarbons (chlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans). Used coolant emulsion cutting machine operations. Paint residues from paint shops and spray boxes. Detergents. Spent oil filters and used grease from dismantled machines. Oil sludge from the hardening bath with remnants of scale. Waste from construction activities. Waste from building construction. Wastes from transport and civil engineering. Soils and excavation materials, construction debris, road materials, demolition, construction waste from construction sites. Building waste treatment and recovery. 6th Week Wastes from the leather industry. Chemical materials to dissolve animal skins for leather (concentrated solution of lime and hydrate of sodium sulfate). Waste from chromočinění, chromium salts, sodium formate. Wastes from the leather production (waste oil, waste hair, keratin waste). Evaluation and utilization of waste from the leather industry. Wastes from the textile industry. Synthetic polymer fibers. Dyes, lubricants and antistatic agents (nitrophenol aromatic amines, sulfur compounds). Types of textile materials and their generated waste. Appropriate methods of recovery and processing of textile waste. 7th Week Waste of energy and industry of metallurgy. The waste products of the energy industry (ash, fly ash, slag). The harmful effect of ash on health and the environment. Use of fly ash and slag in the construction industry. The practical possibilities of using fly ash in agriculture. Wastes from the manufacture of electrical equipment containing PCBs. PVC container. Wastes from mining, transportation, processing and use of oil. Volatile organic compounds VOCs. Spent lubricating oil UMO. Procedures for accidents on water bodies and streams. Emissions from oil processing plants. Refinery sludge. Minimizing the amount of waste. 8th Week Waste from agriculture and forestry. Waste from production and plant them. Waste from livestock production. Litter and litter operations. Production of biogas. Utilization and processing of manure. Processing of agricultural waste abroad. Utilization and processing of wood. Waste in the pulp. Energy recovery from waste wood. Recovery of waste from production of paper and paperboard. Technology of processing of radioactive waste. Sources of radioactive waste. Radioactive waste from nuclear fuel cycle plants. Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants Anomalies. Handling and transport of nuclear waste. Storage and final disposal of radioactive waste. 9th Week Legislation on waste management. Act No. 185/2001 Coll. Waste. The concept of waste, hazardous waste, municipal waste and other terms. The classification of waste according to Waste. Authorization for the evaluation of hazardous properties of waste. Certificate of absence of hazardous properties of waste. General obligations in waste management. Waste manager. Duties of municipalities and individuals in municipal waste management. Special provisions for landfill and incineration. Obligations when dealing with batteries, rechargeable batteries, waste oils, PCBs, and sludge from wastewater treatment plants. Obligations when dealing with car wrecks. Re-sampling of certain products. Waste Management Plan. Economic instruments. Financial reserve. Export import and transit of waste. Fines natural and legal persons. Public zprány in waste management. 10th Week Physical methods of processing waste. Adsorption. Distillation. Solvent extraction. Membrane separation. Freeze drying. Stripping air and water vapor. Breaking emulsions. Chemical waste treatment. Detoxification. Neutralization. Oxidation, reduction. Oxidizing and reducing agents. Hydrolysis. Precipitation. Electrolytic processes. Use of the resin. Flocculation. Dehalogenation. Photolysis. Physico - chemical methods of processing waste. Solidification (hardening) of the waste. Modification of waste before solidification. Solidification technology for hazardous waste (tablet, briquette). Waste Immobilization (hardening, bituminization, vitrification, fixation). Packaging for solidified waste. 11th Week Storage of waste at landfills. Principles of controlled landfill. Types of wastes that can be stored in landfills. Types of landfill. Types of landfills according to local legislation. The technical requirements for landfills. Basic concepts (inert waste, biodegradable waste, landfill gas, etc.). Classes eluat. Single-and inter-modal landfill. Basic conditions for design and construction of landfills. Scope of work. Geotechnical materials. Exclusion criteria for the placement of all types of landfills. Sealing of landfills. Natural soil. Technical barrier. Drainage landfills. Different types of landfill equipment. Reclamation. Aftercare of the landfill. The fees for depositing waste in landfills. Financial provision for rehabilitation, restoration and aftercare of the site. 12th Week Waste composting. Aerobic biodegradation. Purpose and nature of composting. Stages of composting. Basic conditions for composting. Additions to the compost. Organic materials suitable for composting. Toxic substances in the compost. Kind of compost. Technical methods of composting (System and GONARD BIOMŰLL). Principles for the production of compost from municipal wastes. Requirements for the correct method of composting. Composting in heaps. Enclosed composting systems. Anaerobic digestion. Metanizace. Conditions for the proper conduct of anaerobic digestion. Products of anaerobic decomposition. Advantages and disadvantages metanizace. Metanizace use in practice. Types of anaerobic reactors. Biodegradation. The principle of biodegradation. Aerobic activated sludge process. Rotary biofilmové reactors (various types). Types of microorganisms suitable for diodegradaci. The advantages of biological degradation. 13th Week Thermal methods of waste treatment. Definition of thermal breakdown methods. Processes of oxidizing (burning), reduction processes (gasification, pyrolysis). Waste incineration. Burning on the grid, the different stages of combustion. Advantages and disadvantages of incineration. Druhy combustible waste. Stoichiometry of combustion processes. Calculations of air consumption, the quantity and composition of the gas. Complete combustion. Incomplete combustion. Check fuel combustion. Setting the optimum excess air. Determination of excess air in relation to CO2. Equipment for thermal waste disposal. Sorting waste incinerators. 14th Week The general pattern of waste incinerators. Description and characteristics of individual components of waste incinerators. Receipt and storage. Planting equipment. The reaction chamber of the furnace, combustion air supply into the reaction chamber. Materials for production of process chambers. Temperatures in the reaction space. Ash disposal system. Cold water showers, gas, air or heat exchanger. The flue gas cleaning. Venting, chimney. Products of thermal processes. Main solid residue. The rigid share of dust removal and cleaning of flue gases, their composition and method of disposal. The gaseous products of combustion. Separation of dust particles. Mechanical separators - settling chambers, cyclones, multicyklóny, scrubbers. Electrostatic precipitator, electrofilters benefits. Hose and bag filters, their regeneration. The efficiency of individual traps. Removal of the gaseous components of flue gases (SO2, HCl, HF). Dry, semi dry and wet processes for capturing gaseous constituents, their principles, appropriate use and effectiveness. Removal of NOx - denitrification of flue gases. Removal of trace impurities (PCDD, PCDF, Hg). Pyrolysis of waste. The principle of pyrolysis. Pyrolysis products. Low, středněteplotní, high temperature pyrolysis. The course of pyrolysis. Pyrolysis products and ways of dealing with them. Implementation of the pyrolysis process in practice. Advantages of pyrolysis. Energy use of pyrolysis gas. Gasification of waste. Principle of gasification. Gasification reaction. The course and the use of gasification. Advantages and disadvantages of gasification. Formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans, PCDFs, PCDDs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs. Theoretical and computational exercises: - Film screening (Mayor of garbage. The waste is not just a scrap. Battle Management). Analysis of recycling technology, examples of the effectiveness of recycling. Evidence leaf waste. Annual report on production and waste management. Identification of hazardous waste list. - Scheme of links to municipal waste sorting. Possibilities of municipal waste components. Generation of municipal waste generation. Ways of waste in the CR-flops - the latest data. - Film screening (Biotechnology wastewater treatment). Diagram of sewage treatment plants, sludge treatment in particular. Methods of stabilization and dewatering of sludge from wastewater treatment plant disinfection in practice. - Collection of waste, waste storage and purchase of waste collection, landfill, landfills and waste types that can be imposed on them. Technical requirements for the car wreck, the receipt and disposal of car wrecks. Dismantling autograph - Evaluation of leaching of wastes. Sampling, sample preparation, preparation of an aqueous extract of analytical methods for analysis of aqueous extracts. The different leaching. - Incorporation of waste according to the types and categories listed in the Catalogue of Wastes. Import and export of waste across national borders. Red, yellow and green list waste. Passports for transporting waste across national borders. Evaluation of hazardous properties of waste. Person in charge of ME and MH. Certificate of absence of hazardous properties of waste. - Calculation of consumption of combustion air quantity and composition of the gas. - Calculation of adiabatic theoretical and practical combustion temperature (iterative method, enthalpy of combustion, it pyrometrického and effect diagram) - Written test (general overview) Laboratory: - Grain size analysis of a sample of municipal waste and its morphological composition. Proportional representation of the various components of household waste. Summary and grading curve semilogarithmic - Evaluation of the leaching of several waste samples. Preparation and implementation of an aqueous extract according to the Guidance Department. Evaluation of aqueous extract on the basis of some parameters (nitrate, ammonia, zinc, pH, cyanide, etc.) - Determination of moisture content, ash and combustible waste samples CSN and comparison with results Termogravimetrického analyzer. Evaluation for potential energy recovery and incineration - Measurement of gaseous emissions in terms of laboratory gas furnace gas analyzer ORSAT, IMR and 350th testo Excursions - Excursion to the establishment of municipal waste sorting line OZO Ostrava sro Production of alternative fuels for cement. Bioreactor. Line Plastics. - Dump other waste-OO Lázně and dump hazardous waste Zárubek. - Municipal waste incinerator SAKO Brno, Inc. and hazardous waste incinerator BorsodChem, Ltd. Course Notes: In laboratories, students are divided into 4 groups, each group working separately on a task. For every job available and instructions for each lab, each student submits report on the course and outcome measurements. Participation in the laboratory exercises is mandatory, will be awarded credit for returning reports, attendance, the messages from the excursion and the satisfactory result of a written test. Examination of the course consists of written and oral.

Conditions for subject completion

Full-time form (validity from: 1960/1961 Summer semester)
Task nameType of taskMax. number of points
(act. for subtasks)
Min. number of points
Exercises evaluation and Examination Credit and Examination 100 (100) 51
        Exercises evaluation Credit 20 (20) 0
                Project Project 10  0
                Written exam Written test 5  0
                Other task type Other task type 5  0
        Examination Examination 80 (80) 0
                Written examination Written examination 60  0
                Oral Oral examination 20  0
Mandatory attendence parzicipation:

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2015/2016 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies K Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2015/2016 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2014/2015 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies K Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2014/2015 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2013/2014 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2013/2014 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies K Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2012/2013 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2012/2013 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies K Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2011/2012 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2011/2012 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies K Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2010/2011 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies K Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2010/2011 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2009/2010 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2009/2010 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies K Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2008/2009 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies K Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2008/2009 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2007/2008 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies K Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2007/2008 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2006/2007 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies K Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2006/2007 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2005/2006 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies K Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan
2005/2006 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T033) Foundry Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Choice-compulsory study plan

Occurrence in special blocks

Block nameAcademic yearForm of studyStudy language YearWSType of blockBlock owner
FMMI 2017/2018 Full-time English Compulsory 601 - Study Office stu. block
FMMI 2016/2017 Full-time English Compulsory 601 - Study Office stu. block
FMMI 2015/2016 Full-time English Compulsory 601 - Study Office stu. block
FMMI_N 2014/2015 Full-time Czech Compulsory 601 - Study Office stu. block
FMMI 2013/2014 Full-time Czech Compulsory 601 - Study Office stu. block
FMMI 2012/2013 Full-time Czech Compulsory 601 - Study Office stu. block
FMMI_ECTS 2011/2012 Full-time Czech Compulsory 600 - Faculty of Materials Science and Technology - Dean's Office stu. block