616-3002/01 – Waste Treatment Technologies (TZO)

Gurantor departmentDepartment of Environmental Protection in IndustryCredits5
Subject guarantorIng. Jiří Fiedor, Ph.D.Subject version guarantorIng. Jiří Fiedor, Ph.D.
Study levelundergraduate or graduate
Study languageCzech
Year of introduction2014/2015Year of cancellation
Intended for the facultiesHGF, FAST, FMTIntended for study typesFollow-up Master
Instruction secured by
LoginNameTuitorTeacher giving lectures
FIE38 Ing. Jiří Fiedor, Ph.D.
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Full-time Credit and Examination 3+3

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

Acquired knowledge: - Characterize the basic recycling technology - Know the basic technology for processing bio-waste, combustible waste and non-waste. - Define the basic parameters affecting the process of biodegradation - Identify and explain the basic thermal and technical parameters affecting the thermal decomposition of waste - Students will be able to perform basic laboratory analyzes on selected parameters influencing the treatment process Acquired skills: - Student is able to propose the most suitable method for processing a particular type of waste - Theoretical calculations will be able to apply them in operational practice - Student is able to evaluate basic thermochemical properties of selected types of waste with respect to its material composition

Teaching methods

Lectures
Tutorials

Summary

The course focuses on the study of the fundamental technologies for waste treatment. These include the following technologies: waste composting, anaerobic digestion of waste, waste incineration, pyrolysis of waste, landfilling of waste.

Compulsory literature:

TILLMAN D.A.: Combustion of solid Fuels and Wastes. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1991. WILLIAM D. Robinson. The solid waste handbook. Ed. John Wiley & Sons, USA, 1986. ISBN 0-471-87711-5.

Recommended literature:

WILLIAM D. Robinson. The solid waste handbook. Ed. John Wiley & Sons, USA, 1986. ISBN 0-471-87711-5

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester

E-learning

Další požadavky na studenta

Students will present in the PowerPoint environment given topic.

Prerequisities

Subject has no prerequisities.

Co-requisities

Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

1. Waste and its activities. Material recovery. Recycling and reclamation. System approach to waste recycling. Recycling technology. Effectiveness of waste recycling. Regeneration of waste oils. Energy recovery. Treatment and waste stabilization. 2. Physical methods of waste treatment. Adsorption, distillation, solvent extraction (liquid-liquid extraction, leaching) Membrane separation (reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, hyperfiltration, electrodialysis), freeze drying, air stripping, water vapor, breaking of the emulsion. Chemical methods of waste treatment. Detoxification, Neutralization, oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, precipitation, electrolytic processes using an ion exchanger, flocculation, dehalogenation photolysis. Physical - chemical methods of processing waste. Solidification (hardening) of the waste, Waste treatment before solidification, Solidification technology for hazardous waste (tabletting, briquetting) Immobilization of waste (cementation, bituminisation, vitrification, fixation). 3. Composting waste. Aerobic biodegradation. Purpose and nature of composting. The course of composting. Basic conditions for composting. Additives for compost. Organic materials suitable for composting. The technical methods of composting. Principles for the production of compost from municipal waste. Requirements for the correct method of composting. Composting in piles. Closed composting systems. 4. Anaerobic digestion. Methanisation. The conditions for the effective operation of the anaerobic decomposition (composition of the substrate, the presence of nutrients, pH, temperature). Předmetanizační and metallizing phase. Products anaerobic digestion (biogas and digestate - processing). Types of anaerobic reactors. Biodegradation fifth. Principle biodegradation. Aerobic activated sludge. Rotary biofilm reactors (various types). Degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Types of microorganisms suitable for biodegradation. Benefits biodegradation. Developing methods. Incorporation of hazardous waste into the soil (landfarming). Enzymatic systems. 6. Thermal methods of waste treatment. Definition and classification of thermal methods. The processes of oxidation (combustion). Reducing processes (pyrolysis and gasification). Technology incineration. Properties of waste incinerated. Principles of combustion. Steady and unsteady combustion mode. Grate, single phase combustion. Combustion in a rotary kiln, each phase combustion. The combustion in the shaft furnace, each phase of combustion. Advantages and disadvantages of combustion. 7. The general scheme of waste incinerators. Description and characteristics of individual components incinerators. Receipt and storage of waste, traffic conditions. Planting equipment, its composition and work. The reaction chamber incinerator. Ash removal system. Cooling the flue gas water sprays or air in the exchanger. Flue gas cleaning. Flue gas. 8. Products of thermal processes. The main solid residue. Rigid shares of dedusting and flue gas cleaning, their composition and method of removal. The gaseous combustion products. Separating dust particles. Mechanical separators. Electrostatic precipitators. Removal of gaseous flue gas constituents (SO2, HCl, HF). Dry, semi-dry and wet processes capture gaseous components, their principles, use and efficiency. NOx removal - flue gas denitrification. Removal of trace impurities (PCDD, PCDF, Hg). 9. Calculations of combustion processes. Composition of solid and liquid wastes. Determination of moisture, ash, volatile matter, elemental composition. Calorific value of waste. Ignition temperature. 10. stoichiometry combustion processes. Calculations consumption of combustion air quantity and composition of flue gas. Complete combustion. Incomplete combustion. The theoretical and the actual quantity of oxygen and combustible air. Air excess coefficient. 11. Combustion temperatures and their calculation. Definitions combustion temperature. Determination of the combustion temperature of the heat balance equation. Basic types of combustion temperatures. 12. Pyrolysis of waste. Principle pyrolysis. Pyrolysis products. Low-temperature, intermediate-, high-temperature pyrolysis. The course of pyrolysis. Pyrolysis products and ways of dealing with them (pyrolysis gas, liquid hydrocarbons, coke). 13. Disposal of waste in landfills. Principles controlled landfill. Types and waste group. Classes of leaching waste. Single-and multiple-type landfill. 14. Basic conditions for the design and construction of landfills. The range of substrates. Geotechnical documents. Mapping and surveying documents. Climatic and hydrological data. Exclusion criteria for the location of landfills all types. Sealing of landfills. Drainage of landfills. Seepage and rainwater. Equipment particular types of landfills. Reclamation landfill. Aftercare for landfill. Fees for depositing waste in landfills. The financial reserve for remediation, rehabilitation and aftercare of the site.

Conditions for subject completion

Full-time form (validity from: 2014/2015 Winter semester)
Task nameType of taskMax. number of points
(act. for subtasks)
Min. number of points
Credit and Examination Credit and Examination 100 (100) 51
        Credit Credit 20  1
        Examination Examination 80 (80) 30
                Písemná zkouška Written examination 60  20
                Ústní zkouška Oral examination 20  10
Mandatory attendence parzicipation:

Show history

Occurrence in study plans

Academic yearProgrammeField of studySpec.FormStudy language Tut. centreYearWSType of duty
2019/2020 (N3909) Process Engineering (2805T019) Chemical and environmental engineering P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan
2018/2019 (N3909) Process Engineering (2805T019) Chemical and environmental engineering P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan
2017/2018 (N3909) Process Engineering (2805T019) Chemical and environmental engineering P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan
2016/2017 (N3909) Process Engineering (2805T019) Chemical and environmental engineering P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan
2015/2016 (N3909) Process Engineering (2805T019) Chemical and environmental engineering P Czech Ostrava 1 Choice-compulsory study plan

Occurrence in special blocks

Block nameAcademic yearForm of studyStudy language YearWSType of blockBlock owner
FMST 2019/2020 Full-time English Compulsory 601 - Study Office stu. block
FMMI 2018/2019 Full-time English Compulsory 601 - Study Office stu. block
FMMI 2017/2018 Full-time English Compulsory 601 - Study Office stu. block