618-0811/02 – Electrometallurgy and Ferroalloys Production (ELMaVF)

Gurantor departmentDepartment of Metallurgy and FoundryCredits5
Subject guarantorprof. Ing. Karel Michalek, CSc.Subject version guarantorprof. Ing. Karel Michalek, CSc.
Study levelundergraduate or graduateRequirementCompulsory
Study languageCzech
Year of introduction2004/2005Year of cancellation2010/2011
Intended for the facultiesFMTIntended for study typesFollow-up Master
Instruction secured by
LoginNameTuitorTeacher giving lectures
MIH50 prof. Ing. Karel Michalek, CSc.
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Combined Credit and Examination 16+0

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

- student will be able to characterise steelmaking technology and technology of ferroalloys production in electric arc furnaces and electric induction furnaces - student will be able to formulate basic physical chemical processes at steelmaking in electric furnaces - student will be able to describe power characteristics of arcs, regulation of electrodes, work of direct-current EAF and new flexible processes in electrometallurgy

Teaching methods

Individual consultations
Project work


The subject is focused on theoretical and practical aspects of steel production in the electric furnaces. The attention is devoted to AC and DC arc furnaces, induction furnaces, hybrid and flexible units and other innovative trends in the field of electrometallurgy. Theory and practice of ferroalloys production is presented here.

Compulsory literature:

[1] Plockinger, E. ad.: Electric Furnace Steel Production, John Wiley and Sons Ltd.,1985, 650s. [2] Fruehan, R. J.: The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel. Steelmaking and refining Volume. Chapter 10: EAF. Chapter 12: Refining of Stainless Steel. AISE Steel Foundation, 1998, 767 p. ISBN 0-930767-02-0.

Recommended literature:

Articles in professional journals, papers of conferences, research reports, theses.

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester

Two scored semester works and its presentation in relevant seminars during exercises. Two scored progress tests.


For electronic communication with the teachers enjoy the university e-mail addresses those can be found here: http://staff.vsb.cz/ Integration of e-learning elements into the subject is in progress.

Další požadavky na studenta

There are not additional requirements on students in the field of this subject.


Subject has no prerequisities.


Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

1.Present state and perspectives of production of steel in electric furnaces. Classification of electric furnaces. Fundamentals of heavy electrical alternating current. 2.Theory of arc. DC electric arc. AC electric arc. Stabilization of arc burning. 3. Electrical and heat work regime of elektric arc furnaces (EAF). Working electrical characteristics. EAF. Dynamical, physical and chemical effects of the arches. UHP and SUHP furnaces. 4.Other heat sources in the EAF. Intensification of production in EAF. The use of gaseous oxygen. Oxyfuel burners. Foaming nozzle. Bottom blowing of inert gas into bath. EAF productvity. 5.Basic construction of EAF. EAF transformers, reactors, compensation power factor. EAF secondary electrical circuit. Graphite electrodes. Production of electrodes. 6.Regulation of the electrodes. Static and dynamic characteristics of the electrodes controller. Block diagram of the controller. Induction stirring in the bath EAF. Lining of EAF. Water EAF cooling. Suction gas furnace, gas cleaning. 7.Technologies EAF steel production. Two-slags technology. One-slags technology. The importance of oxidation and reduction period. Technology of overmelting. 8.Production of alloy and high alloy steel. Thermodynamics of metallurgical processes at oxygen rafination of melt. Dephosphorization of high alloy melt. Oxide alloy reduction from slags into melt. Alloying by titanium. Production of steel in acid EAF. 9. Combined steelmaking processes. EAF – DH, EAF-VOD. EAF - AOD. Hydrogen and nitrogen behaviour during the melting in the EAF. Molten steel temperature measuring. Determination of oxygen activity, hydrogen and nitrogen content in the bath. Automatization of production control in EAF. 10.Direct current (DC) EAF. Particularities and differences of the furnace design. Bottom anode. Heat procedure in DC EAF. Advantages of DC EAF furnaces and comparison with AC EAF. 11. New processes in the production of steel in EAF - Fuchs Shaft Furnace, Verticon, ConSteel, Comelt-VAI ContiArc. 12. New processes in the production of steel in EAF - CONARC, Arcon, Contimet, KES, Danarc. 13. Production of steel in induction furnaces. The principle of heating and melting. Construction of induction furnaces. Basic characteristics of electric induction furnaces. Steel production technology in induction furnaces. Vacuum induction furnace.Metallurgical processes taking place in a vacuum. Electroslag remelting. 14. Fundamentals of thermodynamics of ferro-alloys production. Carbothermic,silicothermic and aluminothermic methods of ferro-alloys production. Production of main types of ferroalloys: FeMn, FeCr, FeSi, FETI, FeW. Practice (only for full-time study form): 1. Excursion in the laboratories of the Department of Metallurgy - induction furnaces, resistance furnaces.Scientific research activities of the department. 2. Fundamentals of Power Electrical AC - calculation of phase delay, resonance, AC power and three phase power AC. 3 Calculations of electrical characteristics of the EAF. 4 Control electrodes EOP - video program, seminar. 5 Checking results of computer processing of electrical characteristics. Calculation of equilibrium concentration C in iron melts. Equilibrium levels oxygen in high-iron melts. Distribution of tasks for the seminar. 6 Seminar - selected issues of electrical metallurgical plant building. Individual treatment and presentations. 7 Monitoring of the EAF heat in VITKOVICE, Inc. 8 Monitoring of the EAF heat in VITKOVICE, Inc. 9 Course of EAF heat - video program, seminar. 10 Study of professional journal - selection and processing of the current literary resources of electrical metallurgical field. 11 Seminar - presentation of the results of literary study. 12 Monitoring of the EAF heat in TZ, Inc. 13 Monitoring of the EAF heat in TZ, Inc. 14 Computational exercises - arc furnace production capacity, factors affecting the production capacity. 15 Delivery of processed logs. The granting of credits. To obtain credit in the combined study form is needed to develop a session project.

Conditions for subject completion

Combined form (validity from: 1960/1961 Summer semester, validity until: 2008/2009 Winter semester)
Task nameType of taskMax. number of points
(act. for subtasks)
Min. number of points
Exercises evaluation and Examination Credit and Examination 100 (145) 51
        Examination Examination 100  0
        Exercises evaluation Credit 45  0
Mandatory attendence parzicipation:

Show history

Occurrence in study plans

Academic yearProgrammeField of studySpec.FormStudy language Tut. centreYearWSType of duty
2010/2011 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T035) Technologies of Metal Production K Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2009/2010 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T035) Technologies of Metal Production K Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2008/2009 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T035) Technologies of Metal Production K Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2007/2008 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T035) Technologies of Metal Production K Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2006/2007 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T035) Technologies of Metal Production K Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2005/2006 (N2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109T035) Technologies of Metal Production K Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan

Occurrence in special blocks

Block nameAcademic yearForm of studyStudy language YearWSType of blockBlock owner