618-0908/05 – Secondary Metallurgy (SeMeta)

Gurantor departmentDepartment of Metallurgy and FoundryCredits10
Subject guarantorprof. Ing. Karel Michalek, CSc.Subject version guarantorprof. Ing. Karel Michalek, CSc.
Study levelpostgraduateRequirementChoice-compulsory type B
YearSemesterwinter + summer
Study languageCzech
Year of introduction2019/2020Year of cancellation
Intended for the facultiesFMTIntended for study typesDoctoral
Instruction secured by
LoginNameTuitorTeacher giving lectures
MIH50 prof. Ing. Karel Michalek, CSc.
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Full-time Examination 20+0
Part-time Examination 20+0

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

- student will be able to define processes proceeding at molten steel refining - student will be able to explain substance of steel refining in the ladle - student will be able to formulate using possibilities for individual variants of secondary metallurgy

Teaching methods

Individual consultations


The subject is focused on theoretical principles of the processes occurring in the refining of molten steel in the ladle refining the essence of technology and equipment ladle metallurgy, as well as steel refining technology inert gases, vacuum refining of steel, steel refining synthetic slag and stainless steel production.

Compulsory literature:

FRUEHAN, R. J. The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel. Steelmaking and Refining Volume. Pittsburgh: AISE Steel Foundation, 1998. ISBN 978-0-930767-02-0. GHOSH, A. Secondary Steelmaking - Principles and Applications. New York: CRC Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0849302640. STOLTE, G. Secondary Metallurgy - Fundamentals Processes Applications. Düsseldorf: Elsevier Science & Technology, 2002. ISBN 978-35-140-0648-5. GHOSH, A. a A. CHATTERJEE. Ironmaking and steelmaking: theory and practice. New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011. ISBN 978-81-203-3289-8.

Recommended literature:

CRAMB, A. The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: 11th ed., Pittsburgh: AISE Steel Foundation, 2003. ISBN 978-0930767044.

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester

Ústní zkouška s písemnou přípravou, součástí hodnocení je předchozí odevzdání projektu na zvolené téma


Other requirements

Elaboration of project


Subject has no prerequisities.


Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

Causes of the development of secondary metallurgy methods. Main technologies of secondary metallurgy and their effects. Elements that accompany the production and refining of steel. Gases in steel - thermodynamics, kinetics and mechanism of dissolution of H2 and N2. Thermodynamics and mechanism of steel degassing. Dissolution of oxygen in steel - Thermodynamics and mechanism. Flotation of inclusions by inert gas - absorption of inclusions by slag. Refining of steel by inert gases - effects - methods. Vacuum refining of steel - nucleation of gas bubbles – diffusion to the surface. Secondary metallurgical vacuum technology for steelmaking and equipment. Conditions for the production of stainless steel - thermodynamics of deep decarburization of steels with high chromium content – stainless steel production technology. Refining steel with synthetic slags - thermodynamic conditions for refining - Mechanism and kinetics of refining - technology of steel refining by liquid and solid synthetic slag - used slags - characteristics. Ladle furnaces – their importance – types of ladle furnaces - ladle furnace options. Utilization of cored and aluminium wires – the importance and technology.

Conditions for subject completion

Part-time form (validity from: 2019/2020 Winter semester)
Task nameType of taskMax. number of points
(act. for subtasks)
Min. number of points
Examination Examination  
Mandatory attendence parzicipation:

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Occurrence in study plans

Academic yearProgrammeField of studySpec.ZaměřeníFormStudy language Tut. centreYearWSType of duty
2020/2021 (P0715D270006) Metallurgical Technology K Czech Ostrava Choice-compulsory type B study plan
2020/2021 (P0715D270006) Metallurgical Technology P Czech Ostrava Choice-compulsory type B study plan
2019/2020 (P0715D270006) Metallurgical Technology K Czech Ostrava Choice-compulsory type B study plan
2019/2020 (P0715D270006) Metallurgical Technology P Czech Ostrava Choice-compulsory type B study plan

Occurrence in special blocks

Block nameAcademic yearForm of studyStudy language YearWSType of blockBlock owner