618-2037/01 – Molding materials (FM)

Gurantor departmentDepartment of Metallurgy and FoundryCredits7
Subject guarantorIng. Jaroslav Beňo, Ph.D.Subject version guarantorIng. Jaroslav Beňo, Ph.D.
Study levelundergraduate or graduateRequirementCompulsory
Study languageCzech
Year of introduction2014/2015Year of cancellation
Intended for the facultiesFMTIntended for study typesBachelor
Instruction secured by
LoginNameTuitorTeacher giving lectures
BEN001 Ing. Jaroslav Beňo, Ph.D.
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Full-time Credit and Examination 3+4

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

Acquired knowledge: - student will be able to characterize individual technologies for molding and core mixture manufacture - student will be able to define basic methods for testing of molds and cores mixtures together with their regulation based on their physical – chemistry and technological properties. Acquired skills: - student will be able to predict mutual interactions of sand – binder system - student will be able to apply their theoretical knowledge in order to quality control of molding mixture in relation to selected technology - know the procedure and methodology for complex and time-consuming tests evaluation sand and bentonite mixture based on visual methodology

Teaching methods

Individual consultations
Other activities


The subject is focused on theoretical and practical aspects of moulding mixtures manufacture and control. The attention is devoted to mutual interaction of sand – binder system and to individual technologies of moulds and cores manufacture. General methods of testing and control of moulding mixtures is also presented here.

Compulsory literature:

Sand Binder Systems III - XIII. Foundry Management and Technology. Cleveland:Penton, 1995, roč. 124. ISSN 0360-8999 Mold & core test handbook. 3rd ed. Des Plaines: American Foundry Society, c2001-2006. ISBN 0-87433-228-1.

Recommended literature:

GOODRICH, G. M., ed. Casting defects handbook: iron & steel. Schaumburg: American Foundry Society, c2008. ISBN 978-0-87433-314-5.

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester



Other requirements

Elaboration of semestral projects and completion of the interim tests


Subject has no prerequisities.


Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

1. Classification of materials for molds and cores manufacture. Composition of molding mixtures. Sands - general characterization, classification. Evaluation of quality of natural and artificial sands. Determination of basic sands parameters 2. Silica sands, genesis, physical – chemistry and technological properties, disadvantages of silica sands and their elimination (defects caused by retarded thermal dilatation) 3. Non - silica sands, natural and artificial sands. Classification, general characterization and possibility of their utilization. Structure of molding mixture. Porosity and permeability of molding mixtures 4. Thermo-physical properties of molding mixtures. Coefficient of thermal accumulation, constant of solidification and determination of solidification time (Chvorinov rule). Specific surface area, methods of its determination, Coefficient of angularity and its influence on technological properties of molding mixture 5. Activation of sand grains, methods and significance. Reclamation of sands, methods and evaluation of quality reclaim. Alternative ways of reclamation. Molding mixture strengths, Adhesion - Cohesion strengths of binders. Activation of artificial resins (silanization), methods. 6. Binder systems of the I.-IV. Generation, general characterization. Clay binders of foundry technology, structure and properties. Role of water in clay minerals. Kinds of water, optimal moisture determination. Clay - water interactions. Montmorillonitic clays - Bentonites 7. Properties of bentonite molding mixtures. Activation of bentonites, mechanism, chemism and its influence on binder quality. Changes of bentonite binder after thermal exposition. Control of green sand systems (JBS). Oolitization, advantages and disadvantages. 8. Additives of green sand system. Carriers of Pyrolysis Carbon (PC), . Other additives of green sand systems. Function and utilization. Theory of LC. Optimal Concentration of PC in a mold, casting defects due to abundance and/or absence of PC. Other additives of JBS. 9. Chemicization of mould and core manufacture. Binder system of the II. Generation – alkali silicates, manufacture, general characterization. Structure of colloidal solution, gelation process Methods and principles of alkali silicates curing 10. CT – and ST – mixtures with alkali silicates. CO2 – process. Self-setting mixtures with liquid hardeners. Problems with collapsibility of mixtures with sodium silicates. Renaissance of mixtures based on sodium silicates. CT- a ST – směsi s alkalickými silikáty. Technology of salt cores preparation, manufacture and utilization. 11. Binder systems of the II. Generation based on organic resins. Moulding and cores mixtures based on phenol – formaldehyde resins. Croning method, preparation, manufacture of shells, defects and reclamation.. HOT-BOX method and its versions. Gisag COLD-BOX method (No - bake ). Selection of suitable sands, collapsibility and reclamation. Advantages and disadvantages. 12. Molding and cores mixtures based on furan resins. ST - furan mixtures. Types of acid catalysts. Influence of components temperature on run and velocity of process. Reclamation with utilization of multistage magnetic separation. Quality of chromite reclaims. Resol – CO2 process Selection of suitable sands, collapsibility and reclamation. 13. Chemistry of polyurethane binders. Alkyd-oil polyurethanes. Phenol polyurethanes. Methods of core manufacture PUR COLD-BOX, PEP-SET. Saccharide binders and additives. 14. Binders systems of the III. and IV. Generation, application of physical and biological ways of binding for mold manufacture. Principle, utilization, advantages and disadvantages of individual technologies.

Conditions for subject completion

Full-time form (validity from: 2014/2015 Winter semester)
Task nameType of taskMax. number of points
(act. for subtasks)
Min. number of pointsMax. počet pokusů
Exercises evaluation and Examination Credit and Examination 100 (100) 51
        Exercises evaluation Credit 30  15
        Examination Examination 70  21 3
Mandatory attendence participation:

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Conditions for subject completion and attendance at the exercises within ISP:

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Occurrence in study plans

Academic yearProgrammeBranch/spec.Spec.ZaměřeníFormStudy language Tut. centreYearWSType of duty
2020/2021 (B2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109R031) Art Foundry Engineering P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2019/2020 (B2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109R031) Art Foundry Engineering P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2018/2019 (B2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109R031) Art Foundry Engineering P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2017/2018 (B2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109R031) Art Foundry Engineering P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2016/2017 (B2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109R031) Art Foundry Engineering P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2015/2016 (B2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109R031) Art Foundry Engineering P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2014/2015 (B2109) Metallurgical Engineering (2109R031) Art Foundry Engineering P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan

Occurrence in special blocks

Block nameAcademic yearForm of studyStudy language YearWSType of blockBlock owner

Assessment of instruction

2019/2020 Winter
2015/2016 Winter
2014/2015 Winter