618-3001/03 – Theory Processes in the Production of Iron and Steel (TPVŽaO)

Gurantor departmentDepartment of Metallurgy and FoundryCredits6
Subject guarantordoc. Ing. Pavlína Pustějovská, Ph.D.Subject version guarantordoc. Ing. Pavlína Pustějovská, Ph.D.
Study levelundergraduate or graduateRequirementCompulsory
Study languageCzech
Year of introduction2019/2020Year of cancellation2022/2023
Intended for the facultiesFMTIntended for study typesFollow-up Master
Instruction secured by
LoginNameTuitorTeacher giving lectures
PUS37 doc. Ing. Pavlína Pustějovská, Ph.D.
STR580 Ing. Michaela Strouhalová, Ph.D.
SAW002 prof. Ing. Markéta Tkadlečková, Ph.D.
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Full-time Credit and Examination 3+2
Part-time Credit and Examination 16+0

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

Acquired knowledge: - the student will be able to formulate the conditions of equilibrium processes and describe the basic types of solutions (melts); - the student will be able to characterize the processes occurring at the interface of a metal and metal-atmosphere-slag. Acquired skills: - the student will be able to solve tasks aimed at optimizing the course of metallurgical processes.

Teaching methods

Individual consultations


The subject is focused on understanding the physico-chemical nature of high-temperature processes occurring in pig iron production, refining and casting. To give students the ability to understand and correctly apply the laws describing the theoretical basis of metallurgical processes.

Compulsory literature:

[1] GEERDES, M. et al. Modern Blast Furnace Ironmaking. IOS PRESS, 2015. ISBN 978-1-61499-498-5. [2] CHAKRABARTI, A.K. Steel Making. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 2006, ISBN 978-81-203-3050-4. [3] GHOS, A. and A. CHATTERJEE. Ironmaking and steelmaking: theory and practice. New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2011. ISBN 978-81-203-3289-8. [4] BABICH, A., et al. Ironmaking. Aachen: RWTH Aachen University Press, 2008. ISBN 3-86130-997-1.

Recommended literature:

[1] MAZUMDAR, D. and J. W. EVANS. Modeling of steelmaking processes. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-4200-6243-4. [2] CAVALIERE, P. et al. Ironmaking and Steelmaking Processes. Greenhouse Emissions, Control, and Reduction.1st ed. Springer, 2016. ISBN 978-3-319-39527-2. [3] TUPKARY, R. H. and V. R. TUPKARY. Modern Iron Making Handbook. Stylus Publishing, LLC, 2017. ISBN 9781683921370.

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester

Požadavky pro presenční studium: aktivní 80% účast na cvičeních, účast na exkurzích, vypracování seminární práce s následnou presentací, vypracování 2 semestrálních programů, 2 průběžné testy v rámci semestru. Požadavky pro kombinované studium: Vypracování 1 seminární práce na zadnané téma, vypracování 1 programu. Zkouška pro presenční studium : kombinovaná (písemná a ústní) zkouška. Zkouška pro kombinované studium: kombinovaná (písemná a ústní) zkouška.


Other requirements

Elaboration of semester project and making written tests.


Subject has no prerequisities.


Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

1. Blast furnace charge, iron ore, types and properties of the individual components of the charge, the theory of folding fine-grained materials, sintering and pelletizing of iron ore, the quality requirements of the individual components of the blast furnace charge. 2. Thermodynamics and kinetics of processes and oxidative processes in the areas of blast furnace, the theoretical combustion temperature and composition hearth gas humidification blast of wind, spare fuel injection, oxygen enrichment wind. 3. Countercurrent feedstock and gas in the blast furnace, gas flow patterns of a granular layer, the heat exchange in the blast furnace. 4. Reduction of iron oxide with carbon, direct and indirect reduction, the share of direct influence on the reduction of specific consumption of carbon 5. The reduction of iron oxide by hydrogen reduction of other elements, the dissociation reaction in the blast furnace, pig iron carburization. 6. Blast furnace slag formation, properties and functions of blast furnace slag, desulphurisation of pig iron. 7. Types of produced raw irons, quality pig iron, theoretical foundation of iron outside the blast furnace, the direct production of iron ore (DRI ) melting reduction. 8. The basic energy function. Criteria equilibrium processes (G, K). Balance. The equilibrium constant and ways of expression. The principle of action and reaction. 9. The reaction isotherm and its importance. The ideal solution - Raoult's law. Diluted solution - Henry's law. 10. The thermodynamic activity of the constituents in solution. Modes of expression activity component in the solution. Calculation of activities in multicomponent systems. 11. The molten steel slag - slag molecular theory. Ion theory slags. 12. Nernst distribution law. Distribution of oxygen between the slag and metal. The reaction occurring in the production and refining of steel: the oxidation of Si and Mn, the transfer of oxygen from the atmosphere into the steel bath. 13. Dephosphorization steel. Desulfurization of steel. Gases in iron melts. Dependence on the partial gas pressure and temperature. 14. Hydrogen in iron and steel. Nitrogen in iron and steel. The oxygen in the iron and steel. Carbon reaction and its importance in the production and refining of steel. Influence of temperature and pressure waveform carbon reaction. 15. Affinity elements to oxygen. The precipitation deoxidation of steel. Diffusion and deoxidation deoxidation of steel with synthetic slag. The inclusions in the steel.

Conditions for subject completion

Full-time form (validity from: 2019/2020 Winter semester, validity until: 2022/2023 Summer semester)
Task nameType of taskMax. number of points
(act. for subtasks)
Min. number of pointsMax. počet pokusů
Credit and Examination Credit and Examination 100 (100) 51
        Credit Credit 30  21
        Examination Examination 70  30 3
Mandatory attendence participation: 80 % active participation

Show history

Conditions for subject completion and attendance at the exercises within ISP:

Show history

Occurrence in study plans

Academic yearProgrammeBranch/spec.Spec.ZaměřeníFormStudy language Tut. centreYearWSType of duty
2021/2022 (N0715A270003) Metallurgical engineering TAM P Czech Ostrava 1 Compulsory study plan
2021/2022 (N0715A270003) Metallurgical engineering TAM K Czech Ostrava 1 Compulsory study plan
2020/2021 (N0715A270003) Metallurgical engineering TAM K Czech Ostrava 1 Compulsory study plan
2020/2021 (N0715A270003) Metallurgical engineering TAM P Czech Ostrava 1 Compulsory study plan
2019/2020 (N0715A270003) Metallurgical engineering TAM P Czech Ostrava 1 Compulsory study plan
2019/2020 (N0715A270003) Metallurgical engineering TAM K Czech Ostrava 1 Compulsory study plan

Occurrence in special blocks

Block nameAcademic yearForm of studyStudy language YearWSType of blockBlock owner

Assessment of instruction

2021/2022 Winter
2020/2021 Winter
2019/2020 Winter