636-2004/03 – Techniques of Structure Characterization (MSSn)

Gurantor departmentDepartment of Material EngineeringCredits5
Subject guarantorprof. Ing. Vlastimil Vodárek, CSc.Subject version guarantorprof. Ing. Vlastimil Vodárek, CSc.
Study levelundergraduate or graduateRequirementCompulsory
Study languageCzech
Year of introduction2019/2020Year of cancellation
Intended for the facultiesFMTIntended for study typesBachelor
Instruction secured by
LoginNameTuitorTeacher giving lectures
VOD37 prof. Ing. Vlastimil Vodárek, CSc.
MAS0021 Ing. Anastasia Volodarskaja, Ph.D.
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Full-time Credit and Examination 3+2
Part-time Credit and Examination 16+0

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

Students will learn about principles of the most important techniques of structure, diffraction and spectral analyses, with possibilities and limitations of individual techniques of structure characterization, with fundamentals of interpretation of structure analysis results. They will be able to define appropriate techniques of structure characterization needed to solve a given problem and to prepare specimens for basic experimental techniques.

Teaching methods

Experimental work in labs


The course deals with modern methods of structure characterization used in materials engineering. Results of structure studies on technical materials using light and electron microscopy techniques are demonstrated on case studies.

Compulsory literature:

WILLIAMS, D. B. a C. B. CARTER. Transmission Electron Microscopy, A Textbook for Materials Science, 2nd ed., Springer, 2012. ISBN 978-0387765020. GOLDSTEIN, J. et al. Scanning electron microscopy and X–ray microanalysis, 3rd ed., New York: Springer US, 2003. ISBN 978-0-306-47292-3.

Recommended literature:

WHISTON, C. X-Ray Methods. Chichester: J. Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester

Continuous verification of learning outcomes: full-time study form - 2 written tests, 2 written programs during the semester; combined study form - 1 semestral project. Final verification of study results: written exam.


Other requirements

There are no further special requirements.


Subject has no prerequisities.


Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

1. Materiallography – characterization of structural parameters of technical materials. Basic reasons and aims of structure characterization. 2. Light microscopy. Refraction of light rays in thin lenses. Focal length. Depth of focus. Defects of thin lenses. Spatial resolution. 3. Scheme of light microscope. Methods of image contrast enhancement. Bright field, dark field, polarized light, phase contrast, microhardness testing. 4. Preparation of specimens for light microscopy (metals, composites, ceramic materials). Revealing of microstructure of metals by chemical and electrolytic etching. Basic methods of quantitative microscopy. Typical applications of light microscopy in materials engineering. 5. Interaction of X-rays and electrons with specimens. Diffraction on crystal lattice – Braag´s equation. Reciprocal lattice. Ewald´s sphere. Absorption of radiation. Principles of X-ray diffraction analysis of polycrystalline materials. Qualitative and quantitative phase analyses. 6. Texture analysis. Principles of X-ray analysis of single crystals. Applications of X-ray diffraction for evaluation of macro- and microstresses in technical materials. 7. X-ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray microscopy. Typical applications of X-ray analysis in materials engineering. 8. Principle of transmission electron microscope. Contrast mechanisms in amorphous and crystalline materials. Amplitude contrast – bright field and dark field images. 9. Phase contrast – lattice and structure imaging. Electron diffraction. Diffraction constant. Analysis of diffraction patterns: single- and polycrystals. 10. Preparation of specimens for transmission electron microscopy: extraction carbon replicas and thin metallic foils. Preparation of specimens from non-conductive materials. 11. Principle of scanning electron microscope. Basic mechanisms of contrast formation. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Diffraction of backscattered electrons (EBSD). Preparation of specimens for scanning electron microscopy. 12. X-ray spectral microanalysis. Basic principles of wave length and energy dispersive microanalysis. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray microanalyses. 13. Auger electron spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Energy filtering in transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). Typical applications of electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis in materials engineering. 14. Principles of scanning probe microscopy techniques: STP, ATM. Principles of ion field microscopy and atom probe spectrometry.

Conditions for subject completion

Full-time form (validity from: 2019/2020 Summer semester)
Task nameType of taskMax. number of points
(act. for subtasks)
Min. number of pointsMax. počet pokusů
Credit and Examination Credit and Examination 100 (100) 51
        Credit Credit 30  15
        Examination Examination 70  36 3
Mandatory attendence participation: 78% attendance on seminars and practical lessons. Elaboration of the projects.

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Conditions for subject completion and attendance at the exercises within ISP:

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Occurrence in study plans

Academic yearProgrammeField of studySpec.ZaměřeníFormStudy language Tut. centreYearWSType of duty
2021/2022 (B0715A270004) Materials Engineering SVP P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2021/2022 (B0715A270004) Materials Engineering SVP K Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2020/2021 (B0715A270004) Materials Engineering SVP P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2020/2021 (B0715A270004) Materials Engineering SVP K Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2019/2020 (B0715A270004) Materials Engineering SVP P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2019/2020 (B0715A270004) Materials Engineering SVP K Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan

Occurrence in special blocks

Block nameAcademic yearForm of studyStudy language YearWSType of blockBlock owner

Assessment of instruction

2021/2022 Summer
2020/2021 Summer