637-0903/04 – Metallurgy of Pure Metals and Special Alloys (MČKSA)

Gurantor departmentDepartment of Non-ferrous Metals, Refining and RecyclingCredits10
Subject guarantordoc. Ing. Ivo Szurman, Ph.D.Subject version guarantorprof. Ing. Jaromír Drápala, CSc.
Study levelpostgraduateRequirementChoice-compulsory type B
YearSemesterwinter + summer
Study languageCzech
Year of introduction2019/2020Year of cancellation2022/2023
Intended for the facultiesFMTIntended for study typesDoctoral
Instruction secured by
LoginNameTuitorTeacher giving lectures
DRA30 prof. Ing. Jaromír Drápala, CSc.
BUJ37 doc. Ing. Kateřina Skotnicová, Ph.D.
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Full-time Examination 20+0
Part-time Examination 20+0

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

Postgraduate student after passing the exam from this subject will be able to: - understand necessity and significance of pure materials for development of new disciplines, such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, etc.; - classify methods of division and refining of materials, stages of purification and principles at production of high-purity materials; - describe basic characteristics of ion exchange, chromatography, sorption, extraction, distillation, rectification, transport reactions, electrical dialysis, electrolysis, transfer of electricity; - understand significance effective distribution coefficients at separation of materials and relationships with thermodynamics of phase balances; - use theoretical knowledge of crystallisation methods of directional crystallisation and zone melting including Czochralski method at refining of materials and preparation of crystals; - analyse relationships at the phase interface crystal – melt and their influence on effective distribution coefficient, mass transfer, kinetics of growth of crystallic materials, concentration under-cooling, convection and growth defects; - understand significance of mass transfer and continuous zone refining; - acquire an overview of techniques and equipment suitable for refining of specific materials; - apply suitable physical - metallurgical analytical methods for characteristic of high-purity materials; - determine the values of equilibrium and effective distribution coefficients from binary and ternary diagrams, thermodynamic equations and from experiment - choose an appropriate technique for obtaining of thin layers by epitaxial technique and diffusion.

Teaching methods

Project work


The subject deals with theoretical principles of technologies for high-purity materials, for example ion exchange, distillation, electrolysis, vacuum extraction, directional crystallization, zone melting. Lessons include preparation methods of bulk semiconductor materials, single crystals and thin layers using CVD or PVD technologies. Materials prepared through these technologies fall into hi-tech materials group applied in electrotechnics, electronics, medicine, aircraft, spacecraft, nuclear and automotive industry.

Compulsory literature:

DRÁPALA, J., KUCHAŘ. L. Metalurgy of Pure Metals. Methods of Refining Pure Substance. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2008, 227 p. ISBN 978-1-904602-03-3. DRÁPALA, J., KUCHAŘ. L. Metalurgy of Pure Metals. Ostrava: VSB – TU Ostrava, 2015, 226 p. GROOVER, M. P. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and Systems. Hoboken: Wiley, 5th Ed, 2012, 1128 p. ISBN: 978-1-118-39367-3. ABEL, L. A., ed. ASM handbook: nonferrous alloys and special-purpose materials. Volume 2, Properties and selection. 10th edition, Materials Park: ASM International, 2000. ISBN 0-87170-378-5

Recommended literature:

BUCH, A. Pure metals properties: A scientific-technical handbook. Materials Park : ASM International, 1999, 306 s. ISBN 0-87170-637-7 PIERSON, H.O. Handbook of chemical vapor deposition. Principles, Technology, and Applications. Second Edition. Noyes Publications : William Andrew Publishing, LLC, 1999, 506 p. ISBN: 0-8155-1432-8 DRYBURGH, P.M., B. COCKAYNE and K.G. BARRACLOUGH. Advanced Crystal Growth. New York : Prentice Hall, 1987, 592 p. ISBN 0-13-011249-6. HARPER, Ch.A.Electronic Materials and Processes Handbook. 800 s. ISBN-13: 978-0071402149 BARTHEL, J., BUHRIG, E., HEIN, K., KUCHAŘ, L. Kristallisation aus Schmelzen. Leipzig, VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, 1983, 356 p., in German.

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester



DRÁPALA, J. and KUCHAŘ, L. Metallurgy of Pure Metals. Study support, VSB – TU Ostrava, 2015, 226 p.

Other requirements

Project "refining technologies" - presentation in Power Point Project "proposal of refining technologies of selected metal" - purity 5N .. 6N


Subject has no prerequisities.


Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

1. Theoretic bases of preparation of highly pure materials, properties and signification of pure material 2. Classification of methods of separation and refining of substances, stage of cleaning and fundamentals at production of highly pure materials. 3. Theoretic principles of ion exchange, chromatography, sorption and extraction. 4.Theoretic principles of distillation, rectification, transport response, electro-dialysis, electrolysis, electro-transport. 5. Equilibrium distribution coefficient - methods of determination, retrograde solubility, correlation dependencies of ko on different parameters 6. Ternary systems, distribution coefficient in ternary system 7. Conditions on the phase crystal - melt interface, kinetic and effective distribution coefficient, Burton - Prim – Slichter equation 8. Methods of kef determination from experimental results, method of the material balance, Vigdorovich method, frozen zone, slot method 9. Jackson\'s and Temkin\'s theory of crystallization, kinetics of the growth of crystalline materials 10. Temperature and concentration conditions of crystallization, temperature and concentration undercooling, incidences, Tiller\'s equation 11. Convection in melt, influence of the convection on origin defects, buoyancy, Marangoni, rotary, magnetic convection 12. Crystallization methods, classification of crystallization techniques 13. Directional crystallization, Bridgman\'s method, Czochralsi method of drawing single crystals 14. Zone melting, multiple zone refining, Burris - Stockman - Dillon theory, final distribution in the zone melting, techniques of zone melting, \"floating zone\" method 15. Mass transfer in directional crystallization and zone melting, reasons, incidences 16. Continuous zone refining, preparation of metals with homogenous distribution of elements, floating crucible method, zone levelling 17. Epitaxial techniques for the formation of thin layers – LPE, VPE, LE, SPE, EEE, MBE methods 18. Semiconductor materials, purification and production technology 19. Preparation of semiconductor compounds from non-stoichiometric melt 20. Refractory metals, purification and preparation of single crystals 21. Preparation of special materials for microelectronics, optoelectronics, vacuum technique, nuclear techniques, energetic, transport, cosmonautics, highly fixed materials, memory alloys, intermetallic compounds, PVD, CVD methods. 22. Physical metallurgical characteristics of highly pure materials and methods of purity determination

Conditions for subject completion

Part-time form (validity from: 2019/2020 Winter semester, validity until: 2022/2023 Summer semester)
Task nameType of taskMax. number of points
(act. for subtasks)
Min. number of pointsMax. počet pokusů
Examination Examination   3
Mandatory attendence participation:

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Occurrence in study plans

Academic yearProgrammeBranch/spec.Spec.ZaměřeníFormStudy language Tut. centreYearWSType of duty
2021/2022 (P0715D270006) Metallurgical Technology P Czech Ostrava Choice-compulsory type B study plan
2021/2022 (P0715D270006) Metallurgical Technology K Czech Ostrava Choice-compulsory type B study plan
2020/2021 (P0715D270006) Metallurgical Technology K Czech Ostrava Choice-compulsory type B study plan
2020/2021 (P0715D270006) Metallurgical Technology P Czech Ostrava Choice-compulsory type B study plan
2019/2020 (P0715D270006) Metallurgical Technology K Czech Ostrava Choice-compulsory type B study plan
2019/2020 (P0715D270006) Metallurgical Technology P Czech Ostrava Choice-compulsory type B study plan

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