653-2003/02 – Structure and Properties of Solids (SaVPLn)

Gurantor departmentDepartment of Materials Engineering and RecyclingCredits4
Subject guarantorprof. Ing. Vlastimil Vodárek, CSc.Subject version guarantorprof. Ing. Vlastimil Vodárek, CSc.
Study levelundergraduate or graduateRequirementCompulsory
Study languageCzech
Year of introduction2022/2023Year of cancellation
Intended for the facultiesUSP, FSIntended for study typesBachelor
Instruction secured by
LoginNameTuitorTeacher giving lectures
KRA58 Ing. Martin Kraus, Ph.D.
VOD37 prof. Ing. Vlastimil Vodárek, CSc.
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Full-time Credit and Examination 2+2

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

Introduce students to structure – property relationships in solids. Define crystal structure and the influence of defects in crystalline materials on their mechanical properties. Characterize microstructural changes taking place during thermal or mechanical treatment of metallic materials.

Teaching methods

Experimental work in labs
Project work


Structure-property relationships in technical materials; atomic structure and binding in solids; principles of crystallography; crystal structures of elements and binary alloys; point defects in metals and alloys; diffusion in metallic systems; line defects in crystal lattice - dislocations; solidification of metals and alloys; phase transformations in solids; hardening mechanisms.

Compulsory literature:

SMALLMAN, R. E., R. J. Bishop. Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering. Oxford: Butterworth, 1999. ASHBY, M. F., D. R. H. Jones. Engineering Materials 2, Oxford: Butterworth – Heinemann, 1999. CALLISTER, W.D., R. Jordan a D.G. Rethwisch. Callister´s Materials Science and Engineering. 10th Edition. John Wiley and Sons Inc: United States, 2020. ISBN 1119453917.

Recommended literature:

CALLISTER, W.D. Jr., a D.G. Rethwisch. Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering, 5th Edition, John Wley and Sons: United States, 2016. ISBN 9781119249252.

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester

Continuous verification of learning outcomes: 2 written tests, 2 programs processed during the semester; Final verification of study results: written exam.


Other requirements

There are no further special requirements.


Subject has no prerequisities.


Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

Lectures: 1. Crystal structure. Basics of crystallography. Theory of repetition, translation periodicity of crystals, elementary cell, space lattice, basic principles of reciprocal lattice, symmetry of crystals, laws of geometrical crystallography. Crystal structures of elements (molecular orbits, band theory, structures of closed packed atoms, structures with directed bounds). Allotropy. Polar structures. Binary alloys structures (solid solutions, ordered phases, electron compounds, alloys with dominant size factor, compounds of transitive elements with variable composition, interstitial compounds). 2. Linear defects in crystal lattice - dislocations. Basic classification, definition Burger´s vector, movement of dislocations, stress field of dislocation, forces affecting dislocations, energy of dislocation, stacking faults. 3. Interactions between dislocations: crossing of dislocations, movement of jogs on dislocations, cross slip, climbing, dislocation reactions, dislocation density, dislocation sources. Dislocations in important crystal structures. FCC: dislocation reactions, Thompson tetrahedron, stacking faults and partial dislocations. HCP: dislocation reactions, stacking faults and partial dislocations. BCC: dislocation reactions, stacking faults and partial dislocations. - Interaction of dislocations with other defects. 4. Phase Transformations. Solidification of metals and alloys. Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. Crystal growth in pure metals. Solidification of alloys. Eutectic reaction. Peritectic reaction. Solidification of castings (ingots) and conticasts. Phase transformations in solids, classification. Diffusive transformations, precipitation, ordering, eutectoid reaction, massive transformations, polymorphous transformations. Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. 5. Diffusionless transformations. Kinetics of transformations. crystallography of martensitic transformation. 6. Deformation strengthening. Strengthening curves of FCC, HCP and BCC monocrystals. Theory of strengthening of pure metals. Plastic deformation of polycrystals. Strengthening in two phase materials. Substitutional strengthening. Precipitation strengthening: coherent and non-coherent particles. 7. Study of material structure. Light microscopy. Refraction of light rays in thin lenses. Focal length. Depth of focus. Defects of thin lenses. Spatial resolution. Scheme of light microscope. Methods of image contrast enhancement. Bright field, dark field, polarized light, phase contrast, microhardness testing. Preparation of specimens for light microscopy (metals, composites, ceramic materials). Revealing of microstructure of metals by chemical and electrolytic etching. Basic methods of quantitative microscopy. Typical applications of light microscopy in materials engineering. 8. Principle of transmission electron microscope. Contrast mechanisms in amorphous and crystalline materials. Amplitude contrast – bright field and dark field images. Phase contrast – lattice and structure imaging. Electron diffraction. Diffraction constant. Analysis of diffraction patterns: single- and polycrystals. Preparation of specimens for transmission electron microscopy: extraction carbon replicas and thin metallic foils. Preparation of specimens from non-conductive materials. 9. Principle of scanning electron microscope. Basic mechanisms of contrast formation. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Diffraction of backscattered electrons (EBSD). Preparation of specimens for scanning electron microscopy. X-ray spectral microanalysis. Basic principles of wave length and energy dispersive microanalysis. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray microanalyses. 10. Interaction of X-rays and electrons with specimens. Diffraction on crystal lattice – Braag´s equation. Reciprocal lattice. Ewald´s sphere. Absorption of radiation. Principles of X-ray diffraction analysis of polycrystalline materials. Qualitative and quantitative phase analyses. Texture analysis. Principles of X-ray analysis of single crystals. Applications of X-ray diffraction for evaluation of macro- and microstresses in technical materials. -ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray microscopy. Typical applications of X-ray analysis in materials engineering.

Conditions for subject completion

Full-time form (validity from: 2022/2023 Winter semester)
Task nameType of taskMax. number of points
(act. for subtasks)
Min. number of pointsMax. počet pokusů
Credit and Examination Credit and Examination 100 (100) 51
        Credit Credit 30  15
        Examination Examination 70  36 3
Mandatory attendence participation: Min. 80 % mandatory participation in exercises. Elaboration of assigned projects.

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Conditions for subject completion and attendance at the exercises within ISP: Completion of all compulsory tasks within individually agreed deadlines.

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Occurrence in study plans

Academic yearProgrammeField of studySpec.ZaměřeníFormStudy language Tut. centreYearWSType of duty
2023/2024 (B0588A170003) Applied Sciences and Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan
2022/2023 (B0588A170003) Applied Sciences and Technologies P Czech Ostrava 2 Compulsory study plan

Occurrence in special blocks

Block nameAcademic yearForm of studyStudy language YearWSType of blockBlock owner

Assessment of instruction

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