9360-0143/05 – Scanning probe microscopy and electron microscopy (SPM+EM)

Gurantor departmentCNT - Nanotechnology CentreCredits3
Subject guarantordoc. Ing. Vladimír Tomášek, CSc.Subject version guarantordoc. Ing. Vladimír Tomášek, CSc.
Study levelundergraduate or graduateRequirementCompulsory
Study languageEnglish
Year of introduction2019/2020Year of cancellation
Intended for the facultiesFMT, USPIntended for study typesFollow-up Master
Instruction secured by
LoginNameTuitorTeacher giving lectures
STE17 Ing. Gabriela Kratošová, Ph.D.
MAT27 doc. Ing. Vlastimil Matějka, Ph.D.
TOM24 doc. Ing. Vladimír Tomášek, CSc.
VAC121 Ing. Miroslav Vaculík, Ph.D.
Extent of instruction for forms of study
Form of studyWay of compl.Extent
Full-time Examination 2+0

Subject aims expressed by acquired skills and competences

The goal is to extend actual knowledge of students in electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy and their applications in nanomaterials and nanotechnology sphere.

Teaching methods



The content of the subject is focused on the methods of materials structure study and their chemical and phase composition by transmission and scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy methods. The subject extend actual knowledge of students and parcicularly focuse on applications in nanomaterials and nanotechnology sphere. Students will be acquainted with the above mentioned imaging methods, with the principles of obtaining and processing of relevant image recordings and instrumentation of individual microscopes. Theoretically, they will acquaint themselves with instrumentation, aids and procedures for correct preparation of samples. They will also learn about combined techniques and correlative microscopy, it means techniques that combine different types of imaging with analytical methods. All information will be provided to students in relation to nanotechnologies and examples and specific images of nanoparticles / nanomaterials and applications in nanosciences will be documented.

Compulsory literature:

BONNELL, D. editor. Scanning Probe Microscopy and Spectroscopy, Theory, Techniques and Applications. Wiley-VCH, 2001. YAO, Nan, WANG, Zhong Lin. Handbook of Microscopy for Nanotechnology. Springer US, 2005. ISBN 978-1-4020-8003-6. WATT, I., M.: The Principles and Practice of Electron Microscopy. Cambridge University Press,1997.

Recommended literature:

WILLIAMS D. B. Practical Analytical Electron Microscopy in Materials Science. Verlag Chemie International, 1984. KRATOŠOVÁ, Gabriela, Kateřina DĚDKOVÁ, Ivo VÁVRA a Fedor ČIAMPOR. Investigation of nanoparticles in biological objects by electron microscopy techniques. In: Intracellular Delivery II: Fundamentals and Applications (Eds: Aleš Prokop, Y. Iwasaki, A. Harada), Springer Verlag, 2014.

Way of continuous check of knowledge in the course of semester

Oral and written.


Other requirements

For this subject other requirements for student are not determined.


Subject has no prerequisities.


Subject has no co-requisities.

Subject syllabus:

1. History of optical microscopy, optical microscopes, light imaging. Discovery of electrons, construction of the first electron microscope. Wavelength, accelerating voltage, resolution, calculation of resolution and magnification. 2. Basic types of electron microscopes, difference in scanning and transmission microscope design. Difference in sample preparation, image acquisition, real and virtual imaging, instrumentation of electron microscopes. 3. Vacuum systems of electron microscopes. Lighting system, types of electron sources. Termoemise, cold emission, emission current and probe current. 4. Imaging defects, chromatic defect, astigmatism. Depth of sharpness. Electromagnetic lenses. 5. Interaction of electrons with matter, precipitation types, secondary (SE) and backscattered electrons (BSE). SE and BSE detectors, phase (material) and topographic contrast, excitation volume. Charging the preparation and eliminating it. 6. Imaging in transmission electron microscopy - dark and light field, HAADF. Image analysis, size distribution of particles. Virtual electron microscopy. 7. ample preparation for scanning electron microscopy. Preparation of thin films, sputtering of metal, carbon. Instrumentation technique and aids for preparation of samples, principles of proper preparation. Artifacts. 8. Analytical electron microscope. Characteristic X-rays, types of transitions, continuous radiation. Conditions for obtaining a representative X-ray. spectra in elemental analysis. Energy and wave lenght dispersion X-ray analysis, types of detectors. Line analysis and mapping. Auger electrons and EELS. 9. Dual beam microscopes, ion beam utilization. Interaction of the ion beam with matter. Scanning transmission electron microscope. Working in low vacuum mode. Desktop electron microscopes. 10. Interconnection of electron microscopy with atomic force microscopy. Correlative microscopy. Combination of electron microscopy with other analytical techniques (Raman spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy). 11. Theoretical basics of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods. Division of SPM techniques. Basic design elements of microscopes. 12. Scanners and scanner errors, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). STM measurement modes and their examples. 13. Basic principles of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Interaction of the tip with the sample surface. Detection of cantilever bending. Forces between tip and arm. Point spectroscopy. Force distance (FD) curves. 14. AFM basic measurement techniques. Basic 2D and 3D techniques - contact, semicontact and non-contact mode. Acquaintance with other AFM measuring modes - eg LFM, MFM, lithography, multipass techniques and more.

Conditions for subject completion

Full-time form (validity from: 2019/2020 Winter semester)
Task nameType of taskMax. number of points
(act. for subtasks)
Min. number of points
Examination Examination 100  51
Mandatory attendence parzicipation: Attendance at lectures min. 80%. Passing the exam.

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Occurrence in study plans

Academic yearProgrammeField of studySpec.ZaměřeníFormStudy language Tut. centreYearWSType of duty
2022/2023 (N0719A270003) Nanotechnology MCH P English Ostrava 1 Compulsory study plan
2021/2022 (N0719A270003) Nanotechnology MCH P English Ostrava 1 Compulsory study plan
2020/2021 (N0719A270003) Nanotechnology MCH P English Ostrava 1 Compulsory study plan
2019/2020 (N0719A270003) Nanotechnology MCH P English Ostrava 1 Compulsory study plan

Occurrence in special blocks

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